Some call it the Age of Anxiety or Zenith of Modernism. Or it could be called the Beginning of the People’s Century. This post covers history, philosophy and religion, literature, art and architecture and goes from WWI through WWII. Genealogical tables are included here to help sort out national rivalries.
If you’re in a hurry, use the ctrl-f search to find your key term.
If this post does not give a biography of each artist, it puts them in context.
This post has Bottom Line sections as it moves along and a conclusion section at the end that tells the West to do something.
Click on the corresponding post Outline of the Age of Populism.
1. 1914: Outbreak of WWI
2. 1945: End of WWII
Source of Tables: John Fabb, European Royalty of the Victorian and Edwardian Era (London: B. A. Seaby, 1986)
I. World War I (1914-1918)
→ 4. Then U.S. (April 6, 1917)
B. Central Powers
1. Greater Germany
7. Ottoman Empire (Turkey plus)
8. Poland (swallowed up by Russia and Germany)
C. American Patriotic Crusade
1917 Espionage Act punishes with imprisonment up to 20 years and $10,000 or both for aiding the enemy, willfully causing insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny or refusal of duty in military forces (June)
Trading with Enemy Act prohibits business dealing with Germans
Sedition Act prohibits disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive remarks about the form of government, flag, or uniform of the US; one cannot oppose buying war bonds; Socialist Eugene Debs is imprisoned for ten years for opposing war
D. Battle and Carnage (two examples):
1. Verdun: Feb 21 to Dec 15, 1916 (on and off)
French: 377,000 casualties
German: 357,000 casualties
2. Somme: July 1 to Nov 25, 1916 (on and off)
Britain and Dominions: 439,654 casualties
French: 204,253 casualties
German: 237,000-680,000 casualties
1. League of Nations
2. National and International Divisions
3. Treaty of Versailles and Reparations from Germany
4. US costs: $33 billion and with interest and veterans benefits $112 billion
Bottom Line on WWI
|Country||Dead or Missing||Wounded|
|Great Britain & Dominions||947,023||2,313,558|
|Pandemic of 1918: Influenza kills at least 30 million worldwide and 675,000 in US|
|Sources: Peter Simkins, First World War: Western Front, vols 1 and 2, Oxford: Osprey, 2002, 69 and 81; 88-92.
Geoffrey Jukes, First World War: Eastern Front 1914-1918, Oxford: Osprey, 2002, 90-92.
II. Russian Revolution (1917-1921)
1. Czar Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917)
2. Economic Hardship
1. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
C. Civil War
1. Red army v. White army
2. In 1921 Lenin in control
III. Post-WWI and the 1920s
A. Business and Labor
1919 4 million workers go on four thousand strikes: e.g., 35,000 shipyard workers in Seattle; 343,000 steel workers; Boston police strike; all of strikes fail due to “Red Scare”:
25,000-40,000 American Communists shortly after WWI
1890s-1930 200 Corporations controlled half the corporate wealth by 1930
1923-29 Real wages increase by 21%
Corporate dividends increase by nearly 66%
Richest 5% of population increases their share of wealth from a 25% to 33%
Wealthiest 1% controls 19% of all income (!)
1920s Membership in organized labor drops from about 5 million to under 3.5 million; employers treat workers a little better to lure them away from unions
1922 Congress repeals wartime excess profit taxes and exempts families that earn less than $2,500 plus $400 per dependent (see 1926)
1924 Despite increase in real wages, most lived barely above subsistence: to maintain American way of life family need $2,000-2,400, but 16 million families earned under $2,000
1925 Bruce Barton publishes The Man Nobody Knows, which depicts Jesus as the “founder of modern business,” taking 12 men from the bottom of society and forging them into corporate success
1926 Tax rate lowered to 5% on incomes above $3,500
1927 Ford produces 15 millionth car
Congress slashes taxes further, removes excise tax, and lowers corporate tax rate; corporate assets grow from $43 to 81 billion
B. Race, immigration, and migrations
1900-1930 52 cities have 100,000 in 1900, but 115 cities by 1930; Detroit grows from 300,000 to 1,837,000 by 1930; LA grows from 114,000 to 1,778,000 in same thirty years, due to car production (Detroit) and dependence (Los Angeles)
1915 Film Birth of a Nation by W.D. Griffith depicts heroic Klan saving white America from black menace; film is popular and boosts membership in KKK
1920-24 KKK grows from a few hundred thousand to several million, but activity declines after 1924
1921 Congress imposes limits on European immigration (see 1924)
1924 Only two percent of those from each country who were in US in 1890 are allowed, before the great flood of Central and Southern Europeans
1927 Ceiling of 150,000 immigrants is set: 60% from Great Britain and Germany, but only 4% from Italy
1920s El Paso becomes more than half Mexican
1929 California has 368,000 Mexicans, and LA is about 20% Mexican
1910-30 Chicago increases black population from 44,000 (1910) to 234,000 (1930); 1919: a race riot erupts due to death of a boy at a swimming pool; several dozen are killed; by 1919 Marcus Garvey establishes 30 branches of Universal Improvement Association in US and Caribbean, and various businesses; he encourages a Back-to-Africa movement, but he is ordered deported in 1927
1918 By that year, 75% of Americans lived in “dry” states or counties
1919 Volstead Act bans brewing and selling beverages containing more than 0.5% alcohol
Eighteenth Amendment is ratified in 1919, banning alcohol, resulting in fewer arrests for drunkenness and deaths from alcoholism (repealed in 1933); Al Capone’s “organization” grosses $60 million in 1927
1907-29 Homes with electricity grows from less than one in ten to over two-thirds (lower in rural areas)
1912-29 One million cars in 1912; 4.5 million purchased in 1929; 27 million registered; 75% purchased on a deferred payment plan
1908-29 250 companies make cars, but reduced to 44 in 1929; Ford is king with assembly line: car is produced in an hour and a half, compared with 14 hours in 1913; Model T cost $600 in 1912; $290 in 1924
1920s Telephones grow from 9 to 13 million (but more than half of American still lacks phone)
1920 First radio station begins commercial broadcasting and election results are transmitted
1921 Radio station in Newark, NJ, broadcasts World Series
1922 Radio station in NY broadcasts first commercial
1923 Five million enameled bathroom fixtures in one room in middle-class houses: toilet, sink, bathtub, hot and cold water
1922-1929 Movie attendance grows from 40 million to 100 million per week
1927 Radio-telephone link connects San Francisco and Manila
Columbia Broadcasting (CBS) is formed
First sound movie is produced (Jazz Singer)
Charles Lindbergh flies his single-engine plane from NY to Paris
1929 10 million households own radios
D. Women and Family
1919 Congress passes Nineteenth Amendment allowing women to vote
1920 Nineteenth Amendment is ratified by 36 states
1921 First birth control conference sponsored by Margaret Sanger, founder of Planned Parenthood
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act earmarks million dollars to train women to care for babies, assist states that provide medical care, and consultation centers; repealed in 1929 due to Red Scare
1920s “Flapper” comes on the scene: a young woman with a short skirt, bobbed hair, boyish figure, doing Charleston, smoking, drinking, and being casual about sex; contraceptives become readily available
1900-30 Family size declines from 3.6 to 2.5 children in thirty years
1890-1933 Women in the workplace rises from 17 to 22 percent (but manufacturing jobs fall from 19 to 16 percent); they work in traditional jobs; women on average earned 57% of what men earned
E. Europe and International Scene
1918 Parliament in England expands electorate to include all men over 21 and women over 30 (lowered to 21 in 1928)
1919 Weimar Republic is proclaimed in Germany; Constitution is written up: (1) guarantees civil liberties; (2) universal suffrage for Reichstag (lower house) and the President; (3) proportional representation for all elections, making it easy for small parties to gain seats in Reichstag; (4) Ministers are accountable to the Reichstag; but (5) President appoints and removes chancellor; (6) Article 48 allows President, in an emergency, to rule by decree, thus permitting temporary presidential dictatorship
1920s Europeans are unable to export to US and repay loans and reparation (due to high US tariffs), so this will lead to troubles, which lead in WWII
1921 Germany is defaulting on reparations; Germany trading with American dollar by ratio 64:1 (4.2:1 in 1914)
Mussolini and Fascist March on Rome; Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1900-1946) appoints Mussolini Prime Minister after previous cabinet resigned in protest due to Emmanuel’s refusal to stop march
1923 First Labour government is formed in Great Britain, which means socialism has come of age: it focuses on reform, rather than widespread seizure of industry
Declaring Germany in technical default on reparations, France invades the Ruhr (German industrial region) (Jan 11), causing widespread unemployment in Ruhr and sending shockwaves throughout Germany, straining treasury (government had subsidized Ruhr workers) and reducing tax revenues, and causing astronomical inflation: One American dollar is now worth 800 million German marks (see 1921)
Hitler and band of followers attempts unsuccessful Putsch at a beer hall in Munich (Nov 9), but he arrested and thrown in jail for a few months and dictates Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
1924 Dawes Plan (Charles Dawes, American Banker) is introduced in Congress: German debt would be spread out over a longer period, and US would lend hundreds of millions of dollars; purpose: international stability
Washington Conference (Nov) is sponsored by Charles Evans Hughes and gets rid of battleships by sinking them; Remainders: US and Great Britain 5; Japan 3; France and Italy 1.76
Fascists in Italy win a great electoral victory and complete control of the Chamber of Deputies (lower house); in 1925 and 1926 it passes laws to dissolve political parties, thus making Italy a single-party state
1925 Locarno Agreement brings hope to Europe, since it altered, if only slightly, some of the terms of the Versailles Treaty, but it did not alter it substantively
1928 Kellogg-Briand Treaty (US Secretary of State and French Foreign Minister) commemorates long friendship, and Kellogg expands treaty to outlawing war, enticing 14 nations to sign it, and eventually 65 nations, but only has moral force
1929 Young Plan replaces Dawes Plan (Owen D. Young, businessman) and lowers reparation payments (even that is bitterly opposed by German); puts limits on duration; removes Germany from outside supervision and control
1930 Hawley-Smoot Tariff raises US rates higher than before, thus crippling German reparations even more
IV. The 1930s
A. Great Depression
a. Crash of Stock Market reveals structural weaknesses, but by itself the crash was not sufficient to cause a decade of depression; e.g., General Electric Stock fell from $396 (1929) to $34 (1932)
b. Prosperity in the 1920s did not dig deeply enough to reach everyone; 16 million families lived barely above subsistence (see above, 1920s, Business and Labor 1924)
c. Businesses in 1920s held down wages despite an overall real increase (see 1920s Business and Labor 1923-29 and 1924); this means workers did not spend enough to keep economy running, though, ironically, the workers were its foundation.
d. When the markets crashed, the Federal Reserve, fearing inflation (which is actually needed), tighten money supply, which does not allow prices to rise, so now farmers and businesses cannot make any money on the goods they produce; thus, the Federal Reserve adopts exactly the wrong policy.
e. High American tariffs in the 1920s reduce trade with Europe, so American investment in Europe slackened in 1928 and 1929, so European economies declined.
f. The decline of European economies ricochets in America, causing its economy to decline—spiral downward, in fact.
a. In 1932, the median income plunges to half of its value in 1929.
b. By 1932, at least 25% of all breadwinners are unemployed: 4 million in 1930, 12 million in 1932
c. In 1930, 1,300 banks fail
d. Middle class watch as investments and savings vanish, and rich begin to hoard gold and fear revolution (though no real danger of revolution).
e. Natural disaster: heat waves and below-average rainfall turn Western Kansas and Oklahoma panhandle into dust bowl; 9 million acres of farmland lost; 3.5 million people migrate
B. Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) and the New Deal (partial list)
1932 Under President Hoover, Reconstruction Finance Corporation is capitalized at $500 million and soon increased to $3 billion and lent to banks, insurance companies, farm mortgage companies, and railroads
1933 Banking Act strengthens Federal Reserve System and establishes Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which insured individual deposits up to $5,000
Civil Works Administration (CWA) puts more the 4 million people to work on various state, municipal and federal projects, building or restoring a half-million miles of roads, constructing 40,000 schools and 1,000 airports, and hiring 50,000 teachers to keep rural schools open and to teach adults; Roosevelt closed it down in 1934 for fear of deficit spending and creating a permanent dependent class
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) seeks to control farm production by paying farmers to reduce output of staples (wheat, corn, cotton, hogs, rice, tobacco and milk); in 1934 AAA orders 10 million acres of cotton to be plowed under and 6 million young pigs to be destroyed
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA and NRA) helps businesses, raises prices, control production, employ people, and promote management-labor harmony
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) puts young, unemployed men between 18 and 25 (2.5 million of them) to work on reforestation, road and park construction, flood control, and other projects; separate CCC for blacks, and separate camps for women
1934 Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (expanding on Home Owners Loan Corporation or HOLC in 1933) insures mortgages, reduces minimum down payment from 30 percent to under 10 percent, and allows over 11 million families to buy homes between 1934 and 1972
1935 Works Progress Administration (WPA) employs about 3 million people on projects; it builds nearly 6,000 schools, 2,500 hospitals, and 13,000 playgrounds; it also funded writers, artists, actors, and musicians; critics said it stood for “We Putter Around”
Social Security Act forces workers to save for retirement by a 1% tax on employers and employees, gives federal grants to states for the disabled and the blind, and provided aid to dependent children (transforms into welfare program)
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) outlaws blacklisting and reasserts labor’s rights to organize and bargain collectively; union membership increases from under 3 million (1933) to 4.5 million (1935); women earn only 60% of men’s earning
1936 Workers conduct “sit-down” strikes (take over buildings) at three rubber plants in Akron, Ohio; this ripples into other industries like United Auto Workers (UAW) and Committee of Industrial Organization (CIO) and wins some victories, such as 40-hour week and eight-hour day
1939 27.5 million households own a radio (up from 10 million in 1929)
1930s 60-90 million go to movies each week (down from 100 million in 1929)
C. Rise of Adolph Hitler (1889-1945)
1930 Unemployment rises to 2,258,000 (Mar)
Nazis win 107 seats in the Reichstag (Communists win 77)
Around 100,000 men join storm troopers (SA)
1932 Unemployment rises to 6,000,000 (Mar)
Hitler runs against President von Hindenburg and forces a runoff with 30.1% of the vote and 36.8 percent in the runoff
Elections result in 230 seats for Nazis in Reichstag (July), but decline in second elections designed to deplete Nazi resources (Nazis lost 34 seats); General von Schleicher becomes Chancellor
1933 Around 1,000,000 men join SA and attack Communists and Social Democrats
Hindenburg appoints Hitler as chancellor (Jan 30); Conservatives do not trust von Schleicher, and decide to keep Hitler close so they could keep an eye on him
Dutch communist (allegedly) sets fire to Reichstag (Feb 27), which prompts Hitler to claim all Communists are a threat
Another election yields only 288 seats for Nazis (43.9%) (Mar), but Hitler removes all Communist deputies from Reichstag
Enabling Act is passed by Reichstag, which permits Hitler to rule by decree (Mar 23); thereafter no legal limits on Hitler’s power
Nazis seize major institutions (offices, banks, newspapers of free trade unions) and arrest their leaders (early May)
Nazis are only legal party in Germany by July 14
1934 Hitler orders SA to eliminate rivals, e.g., Ernst Roehm, leader of the SA, and former chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and his wife (June 30-July 2)
President von Hindenburg dies (Aug 2), so now Hitler combines office of President and Chancellor
1935 Nuremberg Laws robs German Jews of citizenship and institutes racist policies
1938 Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) is the name of attack on Jewish businesses and synagogues (Nov 9) all over Germany
→ 1939 Germany occupies Prague, Czechoslovakia (Mar)
Great Britain and France guarantee independence of Poland (Mar)
Germany invades Poland (Sept 1)
Great Britain and France declare war on Germany (Sept 3)
D. Francisco Franco (1892-1975)
1931 Monarchy collapses, and Spain becomes democratic republic
1936 Elections bring to power Spanish Popular Front (leftists) (Feb), but Franco would not accept defeat and leads an army against republic
Spanish Civil War breaks out (July), and Hitler and Mussolini support Franco, bringing the two closer together
Rome-Berlin Pact of 1936
1939 Fascists win the war and control Spain
E. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
1928-40 Industrial production rises about 400 percent: iron, coal, steel, electrical power, tractors, combines, railway cars, and heavy machinery; this growth protects Soviet Union from Nazi takeover
1929 Stalin initiates collectivization of agriculture and eliminates kulaks (prosperous farmers, 5% of rural population); by 1938 90% of land is collectivized and millions of peasants killed, sent to Siberia or uprooted to new farms
1933 Stalin begins bloody purges of rivals
1934 Sergei Kirov, popular party chief of Leningrad, is assassinated
1936-38 Show trials of alleged Stalinist opponents are held in Moscow; millions are executed, imprisoned, or expelled with or without trials
V. World War II (1939-1945)
2. German Resentment
3. Economic troubles
1. Great Britain
→ 3. Then U.S. (Dec. 7, 1941)
1. Greater Germany and Austria
3. Axis Allies in Europe:
Bottom Line on WWII
1. 50 million combat and civilian deaths
2. Soviet Union: 7 million men in combat and seven million civilians
3. Poland: 6 million (about half Jews); about 20% of population (highest ratio)
4. Greece: 225,000
5. Yugoslavia: 1 million
6. France: 200,000 in combat; 400,000 civilians killed in air raids and concentration camps
7. Italy: 115,000 in combat; 115,000 civilians
8. Holland: 10,000 in combat; 190,000 civilians
9. Britain: 244.000 in combat
10. Australia: 23,000 in combat
11. Canada: 37,000 in combat
12. India: 24,000 in combat
13. New Zealand: 10,000 in combat
14. USA: 292,000 in combat
15. Japan: 1.2 million in combat; 200,000+ in Nagasaki and Hiroshima
16. Germany: 4 million in combat; 593,000 civilians
Source: John Keegan, The Second World War, New York: Penguin, 1989, 590-92.
I. Post-WWI and 1920s
1. Shailer Matthews
a. The Faith of Modernism (1924)
1. J. Gresham Machen
a. Christianity and Liberalism (1923)
b. The Virgin Birth of Christ (1930)
2. Scopes Trial (1925)
1. Karl Barth (1886-1968)
a. Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1919)
1. William (Billy) Ashley Sunday (1863-1935)
2. Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1940)
A. Pope Pius XI (1922-1939)
1. Concordat (1933)
“The German Reich guarantees liberty of profession and of public exercise of the Catholic religion.” (qtd in Church and State in the Modern Age, ed. J.F,. Maclear, NY: OUP, 1995, p. 386.
Oath for Bishops:
“Before God and the holy Gospels I swear and undertake, as becomes a bishop, loyalty to the German Reich and to the State of __________. I swear and promise to respect and to make my clergy respect the Government established according to the constitutional laws of the State. Zealous, as it is my duty to be, of the welfare and interest of the German State, I will strive, in the exercise of the sacred ministry entrusted to me, to avert any injury which may threaten it” (qtd in ibid. p. 388)
2. Mit Brennender Sorge (With deep anxiety) (1937)
“With deep anxiety and increasing dismay, We have for some time past beheld the sufferings of the Church, and the steadily growing oppression of those men and women who, loyally professing their faith in thought and deed, have remained true to her . . .
“11. He who replaces a personal God with a weird impersonal Fate supposedly according to ancient pre-Christian German concepts denies the wisdom and providence of God . . . Such a one cannot claim to be numbered among those who believe in God.
“19. . . . He who wants to see the Biblical history and the wisdom of the Old Testament banished from the Church and school, blasphemes the Word of God [and] the Almighty’s plan of salvation, makes the limited mind of man judge over the divine plan of history . . . (qtd in ibid 390-94)
3. Divini Redemptoris (1942)
B. German Church
1. German Evangelical Church (1933)
2. Confessing Church and Barmen Declaration (1934)
They [Confessional Synod at Barmen] aimed neither at founding a new Church, nor forming a Union. For nothing was further from their thoughts than the abolition of the Confessional position of our Churches. Their desire was rather, in fidelity, to resist unanimously the destruction of the Confession of Faith, and so, of the Evangelical Church in Germany. In opposition to the attempts to unify the German Evangelical by means of false doctrine, by the use of force, and of insincere practices, the Confessional Synod declares: The unity of the Evangelical Churches in Germany can only come into being from the Word of God in faith through the Holy Spirit. Only so does the Church become renewed. (qtd. in ibid. p. 380
C. Socialism and Protestantism in America
1. H. Richard and Reinhold Niebuhr
A. Pope Pius XII (r. 1939-1958)
B. American Council of Christian Churches (1941)
C. National Association of Evangelicals (1943)
D. Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)
I. Existentialism (1930s-1950s)
A. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80) (“Existentialism and Humanism” )
1. Existence Precedes Essence
Man exists and afterwards defines himself;
“Man is nothing else but that which he makes of himself.”
“I also [like Abraham] am obliged to perform actions that are examples.”
“. . . [W]e only mean to say that God does not exist, and that it is necessary to draw the consequences of his absence right to the end.”
“You are free, therefore choose—that is to say, invent.”
We rely on what is within our wills.
“. . . [N]o doctrine is more optimistic, the destiny of man is placed within himself.”
B. Albert Camus (1913-60) “Myth of Sisyphus” (1940)
3. All is well because fate is in my hands
1. Sartre’s Nausea (1938) and The Flies (1944)
2. Camus’ The Plague (1947)
Please click on the corresponding post Outline of the Age of Populism.to see more information.
I. Zenith of Modernism (1914-1945)
3. Point of View
1. Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
a. Born in Idaho, reared in Pennsylvania, attended U of PA and Hamilton College
b. Taught at Wabash College, but was dismissed because of his impatience with academic ways.
c. He went to Italy in 1908 where he wrote his first book A Dim Light.
c. Lived in London (1908-20 and Paris (1920-24) and until the end of WWII at Rapallo, Italy
d. Published two books of verse Personae and Exultations in 1926
e. He translated various Italian and French works into English
f. He edited poetry journals.
g. His Cantos was finally collected in 1970
h. He was a Jeffersonian Republican and found this expressed in Mussolini’s Italy, so during the war he broadcast fascist propaganda over Rome radio and was returned to USA to face trial.
i. He was adjudged to be of unsound mind and committed to to a sanitarium instead of being tried (1946-58)
j. The decision was reversed and he returned to Italy.
2. T. S. (Thomas Stearns) Eliot (1888-1965)
a. He was born in St. Louis and went to Harvard in 1910.
b. He was an instructor in philosophy there for a year.
c. In 1914 he went to Europe and did not return to USA until 1932.
d. In 1917 he published his first volume of verse Prufrock and Other Observations, which expressed a flippant despair.
e. In 1920 he writes a second volume Poems, including quatrains, in which he thought life ignoble, sordid, or stultifying.
f. In 1920 he wrote Sacred Wood, which emphasized the importance of tradition in criticism and creative writing.
g. In 1927 he became a British citizen because of his interest in English church and state.
h. In 1930 he published Ash Wednesday, in which he expressed interest in the Church of England.
i. In 1934, he delivers lectures at University of Virginia, and he is preoccupied with traditional in moral problems in contemporary literature.
j. Many works later, in 1948 he is awarded a Nobel Prize.
3. James Joyce (1882-1941)
a. In his Ulysses he overturns conventional punctuation and writes stream of consciousness.
4. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)
5. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
a. He was born in Illinois, and while attending school he went on hunting trips in Michigan, which fostered his primitivistic attitude.
b. He worked as a journalist in Kansas City.
c. He joined the ambulance unit in France during WWI.
d. He reported on battles in the Near East for the Toronto Star.
e. He published books Three Stories and Ten Poems (Paris 1923), and In Our Time (US 1925)
f. In 1926 he published the Sun Also Rises.
g. After other publications in 1952 he turns out The Old Man and the Sea.
h. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize.
6. Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) (dada)
C. Harlem Renaissance (1920s)
1. Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
a. He was born in Missouri and lived a nomadic life in the US and France
b. In 1926 he writes The Weary Blues, on black themes in jazz rhythms and idiom.
c. He was then able to attend University of Lincoln, PA (A.B. 1929).
d. He writes ten books and pamphlets from 1927-1961.
e. His major prose works are about Jesse B. Semple, satirical sketches of a shrewd but seemingly simple Harlem resident (his nickname was Simple)
2. Zora Neale Hurston (?1901-1960)
a. Born in Florida and studied anthropology, as seen in Tell My Horse (1938), which reflects her research into folkways of Haiti and West Indies, and Mules and Men (1935), stories of voodoo.
b. In 1937 her masterpiece was Their Eyes were Watching God, which celebrates the slef-liberation of Janie, a girl who dreams of pear tree blossoms, symbolically
D. Drama (1930s and 1940s)
1. Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956)
a. Epic Theatre
A. Dada (ca. 1915-1925)
1. Hans Arp (1886-1966)
2. Marcel Duchamp (1883-1968)
3. Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948)
B. De Stijl (a.k.a. Neo-Plasticism) (ca. 1917-1933)
1. Piet Mondrian
C. Surrealism (1930s-1940s)
1. Automatism and Freud
2. Joan Miro (1893-1983)
3. Salvador Dali (1904-1989)
A. Abstraction (1919-1940s)
1. Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957)
2. Henry Moore (1898-1986)
3. Alexander Calder (1898-1976)
4. Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988)
III. American Modernism (1910s-1920s)
1. Farm Security Administration (FSA)
2. Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)
3. Walker Evans (1903-1975)
4. Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971)
B. Painting (1920s-1930s)
1. Georgia O’Keefe (1887-1986)
2. Charles Demuth (1883-1935)
C. American Regionalism in Painting (1930s-1940s)
1. Edward Hopper (1887-1967)
2. Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975)
3. Jacob Lawrence (b. 1917)
A. Bauhaus (1919-1933)
1. Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
B. International Style: 1932-1970
Western world, a percentage of you messed up. Now wake up, everyone, and reclaim your good heritage, like your true Christian faith, and move past your bad past. Don’t allow communism or Islamism to erode your liberty. Even modern art, as bizarre as it appears, has a right to exist. You fought for your liberty. Now live in it!