Dateline: Virginia, 1758. Are the Governor, Council and General Assembly heartless or merciful in difficult times? Read the (short) Act to find out.
Dateline: Virginia, 1751. This Act of the House of Burgesses tells us. Primary source for teachers of American history on all levels and students.
Dateline: Virginia, 1756 to 1759. The Bishop stands up for the colonial clergy when the Virginians were depriving them of their set salary. Would the Virginians even care?
Dateline: Philadelphia, 21 May 1701. Gov. William Penn, who was a skeptical Quaker about the supernatural elements in Christianity, hears a strange tale. What did he do?
Dateline: in Chester Co., PA, 1689, 1695: Richard Buffington was a prominent member in the community, often serving on the jury and passing over and receiving deeds (land records). His wife Anne was not quite as stable or upstanding.
Dateline: 1683/4 Philadelphia: Did the Quakers show the way on how to deal with accusations of witchcraft in seventeenth century America?
Dateline Virginia, 1676/7: This post shows the Grand Assembly’s perspective about the revolt. Primary source offered here.
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1693. Would Quaker-dominated Philadelphia contribute to their ransom money or turn isolationist?
Dateline: Jamestowne, 1666, and Philadelphia, 1703-04: Manuel (last name unmentioned) and Antonio Garcia were mulattoes who made their appeals to two colonial government councils and won. .
Dateline: Philadelphia, 11 July 1693. Black slaves met together in Philadelphia on the first day (Sunday) of the week and apparently disturbed the peace. How did the Quakers clamp down?
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1707. What did happen to the two thieves?
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1687-1688. The facts are basic and short. The Council took action.
Dateline: 25 September 1703: Servant John Noyse stole a watch, etc. and had to be punished. But how? This short primary source is perfect for students and teachers and other researchers. Continue reading
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1704 to 1705. The description of corruption and vices that these new laws assume is startling. How would the Quakers deal with the vice?
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1685 What was the result of the trial?
Dateline, Sussex County and Philadelphia: 1704. This happened rarely, but here is a sad but true case. How would these Bible-following Christians handle it?
Dateline: 1681-1688, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Some people behaved back then much as they do today. But these men were a small number, so let’s not overstate things.
Dateline: Virginia, 20 February 1745: The Executive of the Virginia Colony delivers a speech to support George II over the so-called Young Pretender, Bonnie Prince Charles. The title of this post is taken from words in the speech.
Dateline: Virginia, 1663. What happens when someone hangs out with Quakers? This brief post explains, in part, why the constitutional Founders adopted the First and Sixth Amendments 120 years later: Freedom of religion and no religious test.
Dateline: Philadelphia, 29 and 31 January 1704: What was to be done when the couple were already married?
In this short post, women folk were rare in 1624, so they had the upper hand in the marriage contract. They were betrothed to two or more men—usually two—by verbal agreement. They invoke the majesty of God for this new rule.
Dateline, Virginia, 1663 to 1666. The colony is growing, and they had to improve things to make money. Improve? Too much nakedness or inadequate clothing. Wolves had to be killed to protect livestock. Primary sources here. Great for teachers and students.
Dateline: 1662, Virginia. Would you get on your knees to beg for forgiveness in the Council chamber? Primary sources here. Great for students and teachers of history.
Dateline: 1666 and 1667. One had to take certain steps to become a citizen, including belonging to the right religion and having a trade. Continue reading
Dateline Virginia, March 1661/2: A husband and wife with their two servants get lashes for striking the High Sheriff. It’s one symptom of a dysfunctional family. Continue reading
Dateline Virginia: Tuesday, August 3, 1619. The earliest colonists, borrowing their customs and laws from England, did not mess around with insubordination from the lower classes. Continue reading
It is startling what they had to go through. How did the churches fare?
Dateline: Virginia, 1623/24: This is a letter written by the Governor, Council, and Assembly of Burgesses to King James I, to reply to Capt. Nathaniel Butler’s “Unmasking of Virginia.” How did the churches fare?
Dateline: 1623/4, Virginia: 29 Anglican Virginians signed this document. The earliest settlers on the American shores suffered greatly in the first twelve years. What follows is their entire firsthand account of their deadly ordeal. How did the churches fair? Continue reading
Dateline: Philadelphia: 26 Jan. 1684 and 12 Feb 1698: They actually enacted laws to set up the public school of Philadelphia, with money. Girls could attend, and poor children could go for gratis. But was the school subsidized by tax payers?
Dateline: 1704: A brawl broke out in the streets of Philadelphia on the night of 1 Nov 1704. Here is the account from the Minutes of the Provincial Council. By now, a few people of church denominations other than Quakers moved into the city. Where’s the City of Brotherly Love? Continue reading
Dateline: Philadelphia, 10 Feb 1698. Or at least that’s what a letter from England claimed. How would the Philadelphia Council reply?
Dateline: 1683 to 1700, Pennsylvania and West Jersey. The head of household served in the highest level of government of the Province of Pennsylvania, but his own really bad behavior brought him down.
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1700. What she do? Marry her “rapist”? Did she love him and claim rape to marry him? Or did she want to save his life by marriage to him?
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1686-1688: What happened when Luke Watson had an affair with his brother-in-law’s unnamed servant girl?
The Richardsons, even though one of them served in the highest level of Pennsylvania’s Provincial Government, were very dysfunctional. These records go from 1688 to 1689 in Philadelphia, but the murder happened in Kent County, (West) New Jersey.
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1688: Peter Stewart was a yeoman who was accused of stealing a lot of money and other valuables from John Wickham. But Wickham was no angel, either. This short post reveals what daily life was like at our founding—or at least the daily life of some people.
Dateline: Chester County, Philadelphia, 1689: What did the court conclude about widow Anne Richards’ two children who were born out of wedlock?
Dateline: Chester Co. PA, 1688-90: She was used by a certain John Bradshaw and then mistreated by her father-in-law in a sexual way. How would the Quakers handle this case?
Dateline: Chester County, PA, 1683: Our earliest (Christian) Founders had to decide on how they would punish people—free or indentured—who showed contempt for the government and its authority. In the following case, they decided on a standard punishment for the times.
Dateline: Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1685-88: Samuel Rowland was most likely an indentured servant, and the court records show him either in trouble or more often the cause of it. Life wasn’t paradise in a growing and early Quaker community in Pennsylvania.
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1684-85: This time the combination and interaction turned out bad.
Dateline: Chester County, outside Philadelphia, in 1689: I don’t know, but it looks like it’s the first one in the Quaker community.
Dateline: Philadelphia, 1698: Peter Baynton abandoned his wife and went back to England, where he got married. He’s now looking to get more of his estate in Philadelphia and bring it back into his possession.
Dateline: 1693 to 1694, Philadelphia. The earliest Americans, even peaceful Quakers, supported the death penalty—that’s for sure.
Dateline: Philadelphia: 1683 to 1689: We look at the records of a devout Christian and carpenter. Church history is more than just famous preachers and theologians. It encompasses everyone who calls on the name of the Lord.
Dateline: Pennsylvania: 1755-1814. Church history is more than just famous preachers and theologians. It encompasses everyone who calls on the name of the Lord. This family inspires me. Would I be this courageous to fight in a war and be a pioneer into new territory?
Church history goes wider than the famous theologians and preachers and political reactions. It embraces the common people.
He was born in 1778 and died after 1828. He attended a biracial church. These primary, old, handwritten documents say he lived a remarkable life and deserves our honor. Church history is more than just famous people.
Dateline: Edgefield County, South Carolina, 1810-1847. This is a list of church members who attended Bethany Baptist Church. Both slaves and owners went to the same Christian community. Blacks and whites attended church together.
After my mother died in 1994, I found her mother’s handwritten family history. It pointed me to the right states, counties and dates for her grandparents, who lived before and after the Civil War (1861-1865)–the Great Divide.
I’m interested in history, no matter where it leads. Call it church history, since these people claimed Christianity. This post goes from 1790-1850
These families feed into the Wilbourn lines and go from 1703 to 1854. But this post goes wider than just family history. It is now about American church history, since everyone in this post claimed Christianity. A few were church wardens.
Faith, faithful and believing come from the same Greek word group. Let’s learn about them together in simple English.
Historians of the monarchs of Europe always include several genealogical tables. Here are some of them for your convenience. Further, each monarch massively influenced influenced the Western European church, and the church influenced them. Continue reading
To spell out the differences between the two persons is to clarify the differences between Christianity and Islam. The points are real and relevant today.
The old laws need to be studied today because they’re still being practiced right now.
Here are the reasons why no one should convert to Islam, which are not placed in any particular order.
Thanks to the worldwide web, Islam has been exposed, at long last, as oppressive and harsh, with countless numbers of harmful sharia laws and derivative and confused theology in the Quran.
It is what made this country great. Max Weber’s thesis recently got a significant boost in the Philippines. Look at the evidence in this post.
The evidence is clear from the Quran itself and Muhammad’s life.
It may seem strange to sweet Westerners and others to contrast the two, but the evidence says you cannot have both in an unholy marriage. We must face those facts. They are different–even opposites–in so many ways.
The references and the totals that are based on them are close approximations. It goes with Part One in the series: Either Jesus or Muhammad.
Lovely and tolerant Westerners and others may not like to see the stark differences between the Quran and New Testament, but these well-intentioned people must, anyway. They cannot have both mixed together. What is the answer to that question?
God loves people, but sometimes their beliefs are short-sighted. They think all religions are the same. They are not. People have to choose between Jesus or Muhammad, without mixture. Here are differences that impact our practical living.
Does Muhammad fulfill and complete the mission and ministry of Jesus? The Quran answers with an emphatic yes. It is a serious challenge. No mixture here. Choose one or the other, but not both. Continue reading
This post may be the most surprising one in the series that contrasts Jesus with Muhammad. Here the differences are once again so huge that you cannot have both mixed together.
Both Jesus and Muhammad said that we should give to the poor (and so do most world religions). But beyond this basic generosity, they had very different attitudes and policies on money. Let’s not pretend those differences don’t exist. They do.
Sleepy, sweet Westerners and others must understand the differences. Here are more differences which produce all sorts of repercussions today. The differences are so massive that they are incompatible.
I love tolerance, and so do you. But the intolerance that leads to violence comes from one side only. Why is that? Two sample verses in the New Testament and the Quran are analyzed here. Either / Or. Not both.
As noted throughout this series, the differences are huge–too big to wed together in an unholy mixture. You must choose one or the other, not both.
There is a meme going around that Muhammad is in the Hebrew Bible (old Testament). But the reference is obscure and out of context. In contrast, the New Testament authors were careful to note numerous prophecies that Jesus fulfills. The differences are huge and unbridgeable. Choose one or the other, but not both together.
Should you take the plunge? I remember hearing an interview on the radio with a Muslim, a few years ago.
This article is Part 1 in the sharia series.
This articles gives the basics. Let’s define what it is before we critique it. This article is Part 2 in the sharia series.
They are impossible to separate. This article is Part 3 in the sharia series.
Jihad means struggle, sometimes personal, other times military. Qital means only military war and appears more often in the Quran than does jihad. This article is Part 4 in the series on sharia.
There are some positive verses in the Quran about the treatment and even release of slaves, but there are also some negative ones. This article is Part 5 in the sharia series.
Simply stated, there is none. This article is Part 6 in the sharia series.
There is no free speech about religion in Islam, and barely any in political Islam. This is Part 7 in the sharia series.
The Quran has some positive verses about womankind, in the abstract. But it also has some negative things to say on a practical and legal level. This is Part 8 in the sharia series.
Does the Quran really give permission to husbands to hit their wives, or is that just “Islamophobic” slander? This is Part 9 in the sharia series.
It is easy for a man to divorce his wife in Islam. All he needs to do is repeat something three times. And then the divorce is final, binding, and legal. No sharia judge would overturn it. This is Part 10 in the sharia series.
Though it is difficult for Western intellectuals to believe, the Quran and early Islam assumes this was done, though it doesn’t command the practice. However, some Muslims today take this assumption and run with it. This is Part 11 in the sharia series.
In June 2015, the Supreme Court said it is constitutional that marriage should include two men or two women. How can society and lawmakers, logically or constitutionally, prevent other nonconformists like polygamists their chance at redefining marriage? What are the pitfalls of polygamy? This is Part 12 in the sharia series.
Should we tolerate veils or headscarves, except during official business like taking a photo for an ID? Where does this custom come from? Is donning it Quranic or merely cultural? This article is Part 13 in the sharia series.
We’re talking here about how they’re punished. Let’s look at what we’re facing in the West. This is Part 14 in the sharia series.
We discuss how the act and even lifestyle get punished. Clarity about what the West is facing is paramount. This is Part 15 in the sharia series.
This is part 16 in an 18-part series on sharia. Each of the thirty points is linked to original Islamic sources like the Quran or to articles that explain these sources. These points prove that these laws are bad for all societies and need to be scrapped in the modern world.
Sharia is intended to judge us. How about turning the tables to judge it? This is Part 17 in the sharia series.
Note that the title says sharia. Islam, a religion, has first amendment protection in this country. In any case, it’s time to think about why you (rightly) react viscerally against it.
Assassinating satirical poets: The historical facts are laid out point by point, victim by victim.
Where does the doctrine of martyrdom come from?
Islam takes the law of retaliation literally. Not even the Old Testament does that.
Qital simply means military or physical slaughter or violence. Nearly every verse that has the word qital is quoted here.
The tragic sound of one hand clapping in Islam. The punishment of hand amputation in the Quran is still being applied today for major theft. The Bible is contrasted with the Quran on theft.
Jihad means to struggle or strive, sometimes with weapons (lesser jihad), other times with inner force against vices in the soul (greater jihad).
Islam imposes corporal punishment on drinkers and gamblers. Is this the best policy to help them?
It goes deeper than just the attacks in Paris, Brussels, San Bernardino, and Orlando (and the others that will follow). It will go past 2100. It’s the Second Hundred Years War.
As a punishment for mischief, broadly interpreted, throughout the land, the Quran orders crucifixion and alternate hand-and-foot mutilation. Real law, real life, real bad.
This post shows Islamic jihad in a four-hundred year timeline before the pope called the First Crusade in 1095. The Church, imperfect as it was (and is), was merely responding to Islamic aggression. No jihad. No Crusades. Peace.
We’re talking about history when the Islamic prophet was still alive. It’s all there in the Quran. After reading this post, you’ll understand why there’s so much violence coming out of the Islamic world.
During his lifetime, Muhammad set the genetic code, and the first four caliphs followed his example.
He beheaded the men and pubescent boys and enslaved the women and children.
The tensions come from the Quran itself.
Islamic fanatics shriek that Allah turned certain Jews into apes and pigs. Where does this harsh polemics come from? Do they get it from the hadith (Muhammad’s sayings and deeds outside of the Quran)? From later traditions? From thin air?
This post on the Japanese religion gives the basics. Good for a quick review. At the end of this post, please see a Christian reaction.
Great review for students and other learners. Please see a Christian reaction at the end of this post.
This sweeping overview is great review for students and interested learners. A Christian reaction or response to Buddhism appears at the end of this post.
Taoism / Daoism: Great review for students and other learners. Please see a Christian reaction at the end of the post.
This post is a good review of the basics. Please see a Christian reaction at the bottom of the post.
Good for a quick review. A Christian reaction is at the bottom of this post.
If you ever wanted to see the teaching and history of this religion in a sweeping overview, here is the post that tries to do it.
Do you want to understand this religion in a broad sweep? Here it is. A Christian reaction is placed at the end.
This is a summary and overview of the religion over time: key concepts, figures, and events.
A post for your review. Please see the Christian reaction and reply at the end of the post.
Mao Zedong: The “communist must grasp the truth: Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” (1938). Nikita Khrushchev: “Every year humanity takes a step towards communism” (July 1956). This post is about the brave souls who fought against evil, tyrannical communism and for liberty. Lots of details here.
When I was in college, a young, sneering professor who had recently got his Ph.D. in history seemed to delight in our “loss.” But a fresh look at the Paris Peace Accords, which the North signed, tells a different story.
This short post covers the gist of his main points. He tries to provide an answer to this thorny question. Great for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers.
This post outlines his essay “Existentialism and Humanism” or “Existentialism is humanism.” Good for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers.
This post is an excerpt of the most famous passage in Friedrich Nietzsche.’s writings It is very soul-shaking and powerful. What does life look like without God? Are you brave enough to find out?
Are moral values relative, or are there some that are objective–true for all places and times?
Does the universe exhibit design, like a watch? Does a design imply a designer?
This is Hume’s anti-teleological argument. Teleology means the study of “purpose or goal in nature. Is nature designed He says no design. Is there a reply to him?
This is an outline of his main points. A Table of main points at the end. Post is great for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers.
This outline covers only the first two Meditations, but they are important for Phil. 101..
This post summarizes in outline form Locke’s main points. Great review for Phil 101
How much evidence do we need before we decide? Will we always dawdle and delay before stepping out in faith?
When should we believe? On how much evidence? Great review for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers.
This short post summarizes his main points. Good for a quick review for students in Phil. 101 and other readers.
This post covers the main points of his version of utilitarianism. Good review for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers.
This post covers, in an outline, the main ideas in his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Good for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers who need a review.
Do you want to be happy? Aristotle tells you how! This post covers portions of Books I and II of Nicomachean Ethics.
Plato is a soul man! This post summarizes and outlines book 1 of the Republic. Good review for students in Phil. 101 and other interested readers.
This short post presents his basic arguments for the existence of the soul. Good for a quick review.
In the old days, “apology” meant “defense.” This post is an outline of Socrates’s Apology of himself.
It’s where we live nowadays, and we’re not going back. We got to examine it.
Everybody seems to use the term. I’ve seen it in movie reviews. “The scene was ‘deconstructed’ nicely.” But what does it really mean?
Let’s face it. For much of the Twentieth Century and into the current one, we’ve been living in the Sneering Age among intellectuals. Or it could be called the Age of Contempt or the Age of Hyper-skepticism.
This topic may seem obscure and irrelevant to your life, but think again. How can you read the Bible and its historical background, for example, if you let hyper-skeptics kick sand in your face during your devotionals and personal study? This article provides three ways for you to be confident.
Prepare to get your hands dirty. This post attempts to dig up the roots of wild and crazy public policies.
On 28 Apr 1603 her body was put in a coffin and was taken to Westminster Abbey on an open chariot drawn by four horses hung with black velvet. Her coffin was covered in purple velvet, firmly sealed.
Sorry, but it has to be asked, with all due respect. Did she really remain the ‘Virgin’ Queen? Discussion of the men in her life. Specialist historians offer their opinion.
From her coronation on 15 Jan 1559 to her death on 24 Mar 1603, she ruled for forty-four years. This post skims the surface of the main personal events and lifestyle preferences in those years. Her motto was semper eadem or “Always one and the same.” Did she live up to it?
Under her reign, Spain launched five armadas against England. Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored the English colony of Roanoke, North Carolina, by 1585, but it did not last long. Sir Francis Drake was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. And of course Shakespeare wrote many of his plays. Virginia was named after her, since she never married.
Did Elizabeth have to sign Mary’s execution warrant? A tense time when Catholics were hatching assassination plots against Elizabeth. A brief biography of Mary included.
This short post covers the coronation itself.